Of all the pueblos, Santa Clara has the largest number of potters. The ancestral roots of the Santa Clara people have been traced to the pueblos in the Mesa Verde region in southwestern Colorado.
Background[ edit ] For more than years beginning inthe Pueblo Indians of present-day New Mexico were subjected to successive waves of soldiers, missionaries, and settlers. These encounters, referred to as the Entradas, were characterized by violent confrontations between Spanish colonists and Pueblo peoples.
There were at the time approximately 40, Pueblo Indians inhabiting the region. The Acoma Massacre would instill fear of the Spanish in the region for years to come, though Franciscan missionaries were assigned to several of the Pueblo towns to Christianize the natives.
Spanish colonial policies in the s regarding the humane treatment of Indians were difficult to enforce on the northern frontier. With the establishment of the first permanent colonial settlement inthe Pueblos were forced to provide tribute to the colonists in the form of labor, ground corn and textiles.
Encomiendas were soon established by colonists along the Rio Grande, restricting Pueblo access to fertile farmlands and water supplies and placing a heavy burden upon Pueblo labor. Franciscan priests established theocracies in many of the Pueblo villages. The priests converted the Pueblos to build the Spanish empire in New Mexico.
Inwhen it looked as though Spain might abandon the province, the Franciscans baptized seven thousand Pueblos to try to convince the Crown otherwise. Several Spanish officials, such as Nicolas de Aguilarwho attempted to curb the power of the Franciscans were charged with heresy and tried before the Inquisition.
In the s drought swept the region, causing a famine among the Pueblo and increased raids by the Apache, which Spanish and Pueblo soldiers were unable to prevent.
Fray Alonso de Benavides wrote multiple letters to the King, describing the conditions, noting "the Spanish inhabitants and Indians alike to eat hides and straps of carts". The remaining men were publicly whipped and sentenced to prison.
When this news reached the Pueblo leaders, they moved in force to Santa Fewhere the prisoners were held.
The Pecos Pueblo, 50 miles east of the Rio Grande pledged its participation in the revolt as did the Zuni and Hopiand miles respectively west of the Rio Grande.
The Pueblos not joining the revolt were the four southern Tiwa Tiguex towns near Santa Fe and the Piro Pueblos south of the principal Pueblo population centers near the present day city of Socorro.
The southern Tiwa and the Piro were more thoroughly integrated into Spanish culture than the other groups. Santa Fe was the only place that approximated being a town.
The Spanish could only muster men with arms. It is possible that some Apache and Navajo participated in the revolt. The Pueblo revolt was typical of millenarian movements in colonial societies. The date set for the uprising was August 11, Each morning the Pueblo leadership was to untie one knot from the cord, and when the last knot was untied, that would be the signal for them to rise against the Spaniards in unison.
On August 9, however, the Spaniards were warned of the impending revolt by southern Tiwa leaders and they captured two Tesuque Pueblo youths entrusted with carrying the message to the pueblos.“Pueblo” is the Spanish word for village.
Spanish explorers used the word “pueblo” to describe both the permanent residential structures and the people living in these communities throughout the .
The Spanish Missions in New Mexico precede the ones in California by a century, with many still in use. Though many were destroyed during the Pueblo Revolt, .
Pueblo Rebellion, (), carefully organized revolt of Pueblo Indians (in league with Apaches), who succeeded in overthrowing Spanish rule in New Mexico for 12 years. A traditionally peaceful people, the Pueblos had endured much after New Mexico’s colonization in Popé, (died , San Juan Pueblo New Spain [now in New Mexico, U.S.]), Tewa Pueblo who led an all-Indian revolt in against the Spanish invaders in what is now the southwestern United States, driving them out of Santa Fe and temporarily restoring the old Pueblo way of life..
Little is known of Popé’s life before In that year he was imprisoned by Spanish authorities on suspicion. But was not the first time New Mexico's Pueblos had attempted to rebel against the Spanish government. Beginning with the Acoma Revolt of , Spanish intolerance of Pueblo religious practices and a persistent abuse of Pueblo labor had prompted several revolts against the Spanish in the seventeenth century.
the Pueblo Indians rose in revolt against the Spanish. 2, survivors hid in the Palace of Governors in Santa Fe. In the Spanish had colonized it and forced the Pueblos to convert to Christianity and become subjects of the King.