Bibliography Definition Academic writing refers to a style of expression that researchers use to define the intellectual boundaries of their disciplines and their specific areas of expertise. Characteristics of academic writing include a formal tone, use of the third-person rather than first-person perspective usuallya clear focus on the research problem under investigation, and precise word choice. Like specialist languages adopted in other professions, such as, law or medicine, academic writing is designed to convey agreed meaning about complex ideas or concepts for a group of scholarly experts. Colorado Technical College; Hartley, James.
Study guide For a printer-friendly PDF version of this guide, click here This brief study guide aims to help you to understand why you should include references to the information sources that you use to underpin your writing.
It explains the main principles of accurately referencing such sources in your work. Effective note makingAvoiding plagiarism. When you are writing an essay, report, dissertation or any other form of academic writing, your own thoughts and ideas inevitably build on those of other writers, researchers or teachers.
It is essential that you acknowledge your debt to the sources of data, research and ideas on which you have drawn by including references to, and full details of, these sources in your work.
Referencing your work allows the reader: Before you write Whenever you read or research material for your writing, make sure that you include in your notes, or on any photocopied material, the full publication details of each relevant text that you read.
These details should include: For particularly important points, or for parts of texts that you might wish to quote word for word, also include in your notes the specific page reference.
The publisher's name is normally on a book's main title page, and often on the book's spine too. When to use references Your source should be acknowledged every time the point that you make, or the data or other information that you use, is substantially that of another writer and not your own.
As a very rough guide, while the introduction and the conclusions to your writing might be largely based on your own ideas, within the main body of your report, essay or dissertation, you would expect to be drawing on, and thus referencing your debt to, the work of others in each main section or paragraph.
Look at the ways in which your sources use references in their own work, and for further guidance consult the companion guide Avoiding Plagiarism.
Referencing styles There are many different referencing conventions in common use. Each department will have its own preferred format, and every journal or book editor has a set of 'house rules'. This guide aims to explain the general principles by giving details of the two most commonly used formats, the 'author, date' system and footnotes or endnotes.
Once you have understood the principles common to all referencing systems you should be able to apply the specific rules set by your own department. How to reference using the 'author, date' system In the 'author, date' system often referred to as the 'Harvard' system very brief details of the source from which a discussion point or piece of factual information is drawn are included in the text.
Full details of the source are then given in a reference list or bibliography at the end of the text.
Citing your source within the text As the name suggests, the citation in the text normally includes the name s surname only of the author s and the date of the publication.
This information is usually included in brackets at the most appropriate point in the text. The seminars that are often a part of humanities courses can provide opportunities for students to develop the communication and interpersonal skills that are valued by employers Lyon, The text reference above indicates to the reader that the point being made draws on a work by Lyon, published in An alternative format is shown in the example below.
Knapper and Cropley Note that in this example reference has been made to a specific point within a very long text in this instance a book and so a page number has been added. This gives the reader the opportunity to find the particular place in the text where the point referred to is made.
You should always include the page number when you include a passage of direct quotation from another writer's work. When a publication has several authors, it is usual to give the surname of the first author followed by et al.
Do not forget that you should also include reference to the source of any tables of data, diagrams or maps that you include in your work.Writing a Research Paper. This page lists some of the stages involved in writing a library-based research paper. Although this list suggests that there is a simple, linear process to writing such a paper, the actual process of writing a research paper is often a messy and recursive one, so please use this outline as a flexible guide.
What is referencing? Academic writing relies on more than just the ideas and experience of one author. It also uses the ideas and research of other sources: books, journal articles, websites, and so forth. Research report writing. Academic skills resources and other assistance.
When referencing hard copy books, you need to include author details, the year of publication, the title of the book (and edition if there is one) and the publishing details. The general format is as follows.
Referencing is one of the most important aspects of any academic research and poor or lack of referencing will not only diminish your marks, but such practices may also be perceived as plagiarism by your university and disciplinary actions may follow that may even result in expulsion from the course.
Academic writing addresses complex issues that require higher-order thinking skills applied to understanding the research problem [e.g., critical, reflective, logical, and creative thinking as opposed to, for example, descriptive or prescriptive thinking].
Academic authors are likely to come from a university or institute, and academic writing is often published by a university press. Are sources listed? Look .