The first was formed inand the last survived untilthough their future was doomed by the integration of the major and minor leagues. Relocations As revenues dried up or new markets beckoned due to shifts in population and the decreasing cost of trans-continental transportation, franchises began relocating in the second half of the twentieth century. The period from saw a spate of franchise relocation:
Criminal Activity Social-Psychological Drift Theory Athletes do not see themselves as criminals, but as individuals taken advantage of by many groups, including women. The unique lifestyles of MLB players influence their rationalizations of their behaviors. Greed Structural Radical theory, Marxism, Neo-Marxism Commercialized sport is predicated upon economic gain and profit maximization.
Those that own sport properties receive a disproportionate amount of the revenue generated. To understand sport gambling, one must focus on the power of learning sub-cultural behaviors and the notion that gambling, like other deviant behaviors, is a learned activity.
Additionally, Shoemaker notes DA is a situational explanation of crime and deviant behavior, which illustrates how individualistic experiences are the result of current and situational contexts. The firing of Marr is part of an ongoing MLB investigation of scouts and their relationship with gambling activities.
Teams with scouts under investigation have not fired the other scouts linked to Barr in the New York City police investigation into gambling. What becomes evident is that multiple scouts are under investigation, illustrating that this deviant activity is not isolated to single individuals within MLB, but involves multiple parties who have administrative controls over the game and who may have had communication and interaction.
Understanding how close the aforementioned scouts were can be useful for limiting further gambling activities of MLB personnel. Combined with DA, Drift theory focuses on both situations and individuals within a deviant situation, which theorizes that individual feels they are good people, but they might drift into and out of deviant behaviors Matza, The ideas from DA and Drift theory better help to understand reinforcements, which are crucial for developing the MLB culture that accepts gambling while simultaneously justifying the fact that MLB personnel still engage in a behavior explicitly prohibited by the organization.
DA is also an important theory for understanding how types of violence become routine within MLB. As young ballplayers at various levels of competition including MLB become immersed in their respective organizations, they learn certain unwritten rules of baseball, which often include a normative understanding of accepted risks and violence within the daily occurrences of the game.
Once the deviant behavior is learned, it can then be socialized to future ballplayers that may eventually become managers and sport organization personnel. MLB, or professional baseball, in general.
What may result is the loyalty to the group i. Sometimes employing an individual level of analysis is useful for understanding spectator violence. Wakefield and Wann conducted a study focusing on dysfunctional fans at sporting events.
This individual or psychological focus is important for understanding how single fans or very small groups become disruptive. Since Shoemaker notes how psychological determinants influence deviant behavior, one can posit that identifying single disruptions and finding ways to curb individual disruptions help prevent collective violence before it becomes widespread at the sporting event.
Anomie theory is helpful for identifying how some cheating in MLB occurs. Indeed, Leonard lists several other examples of how professional baseball players can be considered as innovators. Utilizing this theoretical framework can help to not only better understand who cheats in MLB, but also explain why individuals might engage in such deceptive acts.
Understanding criminal behavior is difficult to do without examining the individual and environmental contexts simultaneously. The unique lifestyles of MLB personnel undoubtedly influence how they view the world, including determining concepts of right and wrong. Athletes often act based upon the masculine culture of professional sports.
For example, by conforming to higher loyalties those of the MLB fraternity these individuals may see women as targeting athletes in order to exploit them for personal gain, thus, further institutionalizing the secret society mentality within professional sports Coakley, Summarily, greed, economics, and structural analysis are seemingly intertwined with MLB.
Shoemaker notes that Radical theorists or Neo-Marxists view economics, capitalism, and class struggles as precipitating factors influencing deviant behavior. For purposes of this discussion, a traditionally Marxist view explains how those that control the means of production i.
Additionally, the exploitation of municipalities regarding public subsidies of stadiums illustrates the inequities in power and economic influence. As a result, the economic power franchise owners possess empowers them to embrace greed deviant behavior and further expand their wealth.
Gambling Since gambling behavior is fundamentally affected by perceptions of norms within the larger society i. This would mean refusing to accept advertising from casinos and refusing to partner with state lotteries.
Further, MLB should move to aggressively investigate and, when appropriate, punish anyone within the game that has violated rules pertaining to betting on baseball, thereby legitimating rules and showing MLB personnel how these normative structures apply to them.
Specifically, the unwritten rules and self-policing that occurs amongst MLB players appears related to two ideas: The comments were a reaction to a White Sox incident with the Kansas City Royals in which a Royals player was hit by a pitch and charged the mound.
MLB can discourage player violence by reprimanding managers or even removing players that engage in such conduct, thereby changing the culture of accepting on-field violence. MLB, in turn, would need to monitor managers on a yearly basis through increase supervision to mandate that such a cultural shift would occur.
Two of these guidelines include:DISCRIMINATION IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL LITERATURE The literature on salary discrimination in Major League Baseball blossomed in the s. One of the first such studies was that of Gerald Scully . Foundation of the Major League Baseball Players Association.
The current players organization, the Major League Baseball Players Association, was formed in It remained in the background, however, until the players hired Marvin Miller in to head the organization.
Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play in the National League (NL) and American . An econometric analysis of the major league baseball season Steven L.
Fullerton Major league baseball, the so-called national pastime of the United States, is closely payroll structure, and league rule differences, another specification is tested. In that. However, despite the perceived problems, attendance by fans at major league games have been between 50,, in to a high of 72,, in 2 By the years attendance at major league games was 74,, with .
A Business Analysis of Asian Baseball the Major League Baseball Players Association, was founded in , and played an important role in the introduction of a free agent system in After playing for six seasons, players league structure, which consists of two independent leagues, the Central League (CL).