History[ edit ] Italian school of elitism[ edit ] Vilfredo Pareto —Gaetano Mosca —and Robert Michels —were cofounders of the Italian school of elitism, which influenced subsequent elite theory in the Western tradition. Power lies in position of authority in key economic and political institutions.
See Article History Policy analysis, evaluation and study of the formulation, adoption, and implementation of a principle or course of action intended to ameliorate economic, social, or other public issues. Policy analysis is concerned primarily with policy alternatives that are expected to produce novel solutions.
Policy analysis requires careful systematic and empirical study. The complexities of policy analysis have contributed to the development and growth of policy science, which applies a variety of theories and tools from the hard sciences e.
Policy analysis is important in modern complex societies, which typically have vast numbers of public policies and sophisticated and often interconnected challenges, such that public policies have tremendous social, economic, and political implications.
Moreover, public policy is a dynamic process, operating under changing social, political, and economic conditions.
Policy analysis helps public officials understand how social, economic, and political conditions change and how public policies must evolve in order to meet the changing needs of a changing society. Formulating effective policies Policy analysis plays an important role in helping to define and outline the goals of a proposed policy and in identifying similarities and differences in expected outcomes and estimated costs with competing alternative policies.
Many public policies are designed to solve both current and future problems, and thus policy analysis attempts to forecast future needs based on past and present conditions. Policy outcomes can be found in a variety of different forms—tangible outputs and less-tangible outputs for which the impacts are more difficult to measure.
In many cases, it is difficult to determine if the policy itself resulted in desired change or if other exogenous or external factors were the most direct cause.
Nevertheless, it is important to determine if policy is responsible for the desired change; otherwise, there would be no need for the policy.
Policy analysts often use theoretically grounded statistical models to determine if the policy will have the desired impact. In a final stage of policy analysis, analysts collate the information gathered to determine which policy alternative will best meet present and future needs.
Methods of analysis There are two types of empirical analysis: Qualitative studies involve a variety of different tools. For example, some qualitative studies involve archival analysis, studying policy history and determining what has been done in the past to solve certain policy problems.
Qualitative studies might also involve personal interviews, asking individuals to describe in words a variety of issues surrounding the policy process—from policy agendas to formulation, implementation, and evaluation.
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Interviews with policy makers and with the clientele being served by a particular policy may provide valuable information about policy goals, processes, and outcomes. Archival analysis is particularly important in public policy analysis.
Through studies of policy history, policy analysts can learn important lessons from earlier times and apply those lessons to current or future problems and goals.
A new policy goal may sound highly innovative and cost-effective and promise to meet worthy goals, but archival research may illustrate the hidden costs and pitfalls that might result in policy failure. Personal interviews are also an important method of improving public policy.
Public policy is formulated and implemented by professionals working in government, oftentimes for an entire career. Through their individual experiences in particular policy areas, the experiences of elected and appointed officials become key policy artifacts.
When these individuals leave government service, their experience and wisdom are often lost.
One way to prevent this is to document the informal lessons or experiences of senior elected and appointed officials. Personal interviews are perhaps the most effective method of accomplishing this goal, largely because a personal interview technique will allow for a high degree of flexibility in information collection.
Quantitative studies are of tremendous value to policy analysts in their continual efforts to address important policy issues. Cost-benefit analysis is one of the most common forms of quantitative policy analysis.
It is primarily concerned with comparing the amount of expected or known benefits produced from a particular policy choice with the expected or known costs associated with that choice. Of the two elements of the equation, the determination of costs is often more easily computed.
Costs are most often measured in monetary terms; labour and supplies are easily converted to dollar costs.
While there are always hidden costs associated with any policy decision, those costs can be estimated given previous experiences in prior public policy endeavours. Opportunity costs—the costs associated with choosing a particular policy over an alternative policy—can also be estimated.The Political Culture of The United States - The idea of political culture is found within the state’s history.
The history of the state is impacted by the people settled in the region, religious backgrounds, and geography. political community’s self-government. element of constitutionalism. (See The Rule of Law.) The judiciary in political systems such as Germany and the United States has the power of judicial reviewin order to enforce constitutionalism.
Unlike Britain but like most nation states, the American political system is clearly defined by basic documents. The Declaration of Independence of and the Constitution of form the foundations of the United States federal government.
Political parties are the most representative, inclusive organizations in the United States. They are made up of citizens who may differ in race, religion, age, and economic and social background, but who share certain perspectives on public issues and leaders. The United States is often described as a "capitalist" economy, a term coined by 19th-century German economist and social theorist Karl Marx to describe a system in which a small group of people who control large amounts of money, or capital, make the most important economic decisions.
Pest Analysis Of Italian Environment PEST Analysis for the Apple Smartphone 1) Political Environment From the political point of view Italy is an ideal country where to export our product. It has good international relationships, especially with other EU countries where we are already present and with the USA.