News Essay Writing Some assignments, and most examination answers, will be required to be presented in the form of an essay. An essay is a continuous piece of writing in which ideas, propositions, research and justifications are put forward and analysed in the form of a series of paragraphs. The structure is different from that of a written report see Report Writing belowwhich is separated into sections by numbers and headings: Below are some suggested means of checking.
Etymology[ edit ] The Latin root arguere to make bright, enlighten, make known, prove, etc. Informal logic and Formal logic Informal arguments as studied in informal logic, are presented in ordinary language and are intended for everyday discourse.
Conversely, formal arguments are studied in formal logic historically called symbolic logic, more commonly referred to as mathematical logic today and are expressed in a formal language.
Informal logic may be said to emphasize the study of argumentationwhereas formal logic emphasizes implication and inference. Informal arguments are sometimes implicit.
That is, the rational structure — the relationship of claims, premises, warrants, relations of implication, and conclusion — is not always spelled out and immediately visible and must sometimes be made explicit by analysis. Standard types[ edit ] Argument terminology There are several kinds of arguments in logic, the best-known of which are "deductive" and "inductive.
Each premise and the conclusion are truth bearers or "truth-candidates", each capable of being either true or false but not both. These truth values bear on the terminology used with arguments. Deductive arguments[ edit ] A deductive argument asserts that the truth of the conclusion is a logical consequence of the premises.
Based on the premises, the conclusion follows necessarily with certainty. Deductive arguments are sometimes referred to as "truth-preserving" arguments. A deductive argument is said to be valid or invalid.
If one assumes the premises to be true ignoring their actual truth valueswould the conclusion follow with certainty? If yes, the argument is valid. Otherwise, it is invalid. In determining validity, the structure of the argument is essential to the determination, not the actual truth values.
If we assume the premises are true, the conclusion follows necessarily, and thus it is a valid argument. If a deductive argument is valid and its premises are all true, then it is also referred to as sound. Otherwise, it is unsound, as in the "bats are birds" example.
Inductive arguments[ edit ] An inductive argumenton the other hand, asserts that the truth of the conclusion is supported to some degree of probability by the premises. For example, given that the U. Arguments that involve predictions are inductive, as the future is uncertain.
An inductive argument is said to be strong or weak. If the premises of an inductive argument are assumed true, is it probable the conclusion is also true? If so, the argument is strong.
Otherwise, it is weak. A strong argument is said to be cogent if it has all true premises. Otherwise, the argument is uncogent. The military budget argument example above is a strong, cogent argument. Deductive argument A deductive argument is one that, if valid, has a conclusion that is entailed by its premises.
In other words, the truth of the conclusion is a logical consequence of the premises—if the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true. It would be self-contradictory to assert the premises and deny the conclusion, because the negation of the conclusion is contradictory to the truth of the premises.
Validity logic Deductive arguments may be either valid or invalid. If an argument is valid, it is a valid deduction, and if its premises are true, the conclusion must be true: An argument is formally valid if and only if the denial of the conclusion is incompatible with accepting all the premises.
The validity of an argument depends, however, not on the actual truth or falsity of its premises and conclusion, but solely on whether or not the argument has a valid logical form. The validity of an argument is not a guarantee of the truth of its conclusion.
Under a given interpretation, a valid argument may have false premises that render it inconclusive: Logic seeks to discover the valid forms, the forms that make arguments valid. A form of argument is valid if and only if the conclusion is true under all interpretations of that argument in which the premises are true.
Since the validity of an argument depends solely on its form, an argument can be shown to be invalid by showing that its form is invalid. This can be done by giving a counter example of the same form of argument with premises that are true under a given interpretation, but a conclusion that is false under that interpretation.
In informal logic this is called a counter argument.A deductive argument is one that, if valid, has a conclusion that is entailed by its premises. In other words, the truth of the conclusion is a logical consequence of the premises—if the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true.
Grammar – make sure you use the same tense throughout the essay. Vocabulary – check whether you use linking words and avoid slang. Spelling and capitalization – check if all the words are written correctly. In addition, make sure you do not present your ideas using the lists. After all, this is an opinion essay, not a shopping list.
Done right, your opinion essay will be an outstanding piece of writing.
Below you will find five outstanding thesis statements / paper topics for “Frankenstein” by Mary Shelley that can be used as essay starters. I have come to the same conclusion I hold the same opinion.
We are of one mind / of the same mind on that question. I am at one with him on that point. May 30, · But the ritual quickly became the tool of partisan memory as well, at least through the violent Reconstruction years.
In the South, Memorial Day was a . The IELTS writing task 2 sample answer below has examiner comments and is band score 9. The topic of social media is common and this IELTS essay question was reported in the IELTS test.