Conservative, rigid and structured, unless the danger of failure requires a more flexible attitude. People are expressive, and are allowed to show anger or emotions, if necessary. A high energy society, if people feel that they are in control of their life instead of feeling overwhelmed by life's vagaries. Be clear and concise about expectations and goals, and set clearly defined parameters.
Leadership Content No topic, probably, has been quite as exhaustively examined, studied, dissected, and discussed as leadership. But much of the focus has been on how American businesses define leadership.
What works in U. Housedirector of the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research Program at the Wharton School, has spent the past ten years studying how different cultures throughout the world define leadership.
He and his colleagues have found that definitions and perceptions of leadership vary considerably from culture to culture.
In the global business world, organizations and executives face a growing need to understand the subtleties and nuances of leadership as it is exercised in different cultures. Over the past six years GLOBE has evolved into a multi-phase, multi-method research project in which some investigators from over 60 cultures representing all major regions of the world collaborate to examine the interrelationships among societal culture, organizational culture and practices and organizational leadership.
GLOBE has focused on universals and culture-based differences in perceived effectiveness of leadership attributes by asking middle managers whether certain leader characteristics and behaviors would help or hinder a person in becoming an outstanding leader.
Phase II found that there are universally endorsed leader attributes. In addition, the study also found that there are attributes that are universally seen as impediments to outstanding leadership.
The most important finding, however, is that there are culturally-contingent attributes that can help or hinder leadership. What is seen as a strength in one culture may be a considerable impediment in another culture.
These findings appear in a paper titled: Business is global, but each business organization has a culture shaped by the business it is in and the people who run the business. Executives are themselves products of the unique cultures in which they have learned and conducted business.
To see how cultures might come into play, we can easily imagine a situation in which a British executive who was trained at an American business school is asked to run the Argentine manufacturing facility of a Japanese firm.
What leadership attributes should this executive work to develop: This executive needs to understand the culture within which he works and how his employees perceive leadership. An executive needs to develop bespoke leadership attributes, tailored to the unique culture within which he or she works.
A general description of a leader might be someone who is charismatic and seeks to develop a transformational style of leadership. In some cultures, one might need to take strong, decisive action in order to be seen as a leader, while in other cultures consultation and a democratic approach may be the preferred approach to exercising effective leadership.
Managerial practices and motivational techniques that are legitimate and acceptable in on culture may not be in another.
There is concern in some cultures that people tend to lose their balance and perspective as a result of an excessive focus on achievement created by charismatic leaders. Certainly the most notorious example of a charismatic leader is Hitler.
Leaders are expected to have vision, but how this is displayed differs from culture to culture. In China, the influence of Confucian values make people wary of leaders who talk without engaging in specific action.
Indian managers, on the other hand, care less about visionaries, preferring bold assertive styles of leadership. Leaders are often thought to be risk- takers, but GLOBE found that risk taking is not universally valued as contributing to outstanding leadership.
Communication skills are also important to the leader, but again, how these skills are perceived differs among and within cultures. What constitutes a good communicator is likely to vary greatly across cultures.
American managers are more likely to provide directions to subordinates on a face-to-face basis while Japanese managers are likely to use written memos. These differences reflect the U. There are profound differences in the preferred use of language, as well as nonverbal cues.
In many cultures, interrupting someone is considered to be impolite, while in most Latin cultures, interrupting conveys that one is interested in what the other person in saying.
In Asian cultures the pauses between speakers are often much longer than what we find in the West. Cultural differences are found as well in gestures, intonation, and the use of humor.
Certain charismatic attributes are perceived to be culturally contingent. These include enthusiasm, risk-taking, ambition, humility, sincerity, sensitivity, and compassion.
Future GLOBE studies will examine the critical issue of whether leaders who are seen to act in accordance with their culturally-endorsed leadership theories are more effective than those who do not act according to culturally imposed expectations. Other questions GLOBE will continue to examine include how labels such as visionary, compassionate, or motivational are interpreted in various cultures.
A related question includes that of how and when specific behaviors will reflect such attributes in a given culture. Paradoxes in leadership abound. Instant communications and easy accessibility may shrink this world, but distinct cultures have always and will always continue to exist throughout the global economy.Jun 28, · 4 The Demographic Variables That Affect a Business Businesses do not exist in a vacuum, and even the most successful business must be .
From comparative data on these dimensions, in fifty-two different work organizations in England, scales were constructed to measure sixty-four component variables.
The Seven Dimensions of Culture model was created by Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner, and was published in their book, "Riding the Waves of Culture." The model says that what distinguishes people from one culture compared with another is where their preferences fall on each of the following seven dimensions.
What variables are relevant for measuring Diversity Sensitivity in organizations? In view of the fast changing economic environment, organizations at the global level are taking a number of steps. Human and Cultural variables in Global Organization: By KP Kanchana Faculty OB/HR ICFAI National College Bhopal: This episode is one of the many other similar ones which underscore the HR Challenges in preparing people for Cross Cultural working.
Jun 30, · How Can Cultural Differences Affect Business Communication? List of the Five Dimensions of Culture & How Each Affect Employee Behavior. The Demographic Variables That Affect a Business ;.