This develops at about 2 years of age. It is when the child recognizes they are male or female and other people are as well. Advertisement Was this step helpful?
Saul McLeodupdated Lawrence Kohlberg agreed with Piaget's theory of moral development in principle but wanted to develop his ideas further.
In each case, he presented a choice to be considered, for example, between the rights of some authority and the needs of some deserving individual who is being unfairly treated.
Doctors said a new drug might save her. The drug had been discovered by a local chemist, and the Heinz tried desperately to buy some, but the chemist was charging ten times the money it cost to make the drug, and this was much more than the Heinz could afford.
Heinz could only raise half the money, even after help from family and friends. He explained to the chemist that his wife was dying and asked if he could have the drug cheaper or pay the rest of the money later.
The chemist refused, saying that he had discovered the drug and was going to make money Maslow and kohlberg it. Kohlberg asked a series of questions such as: Should Heinz have stolen the drug? Would it change anything if Heinz did not love his wife?
What if the person dying was a stranger, would it make any difference? Should the police arrest the chemist for murder if the woman died? By studying the answers from children of different ages to these questions, Kohlberg hoped to discover how moral reasoning changed as people grew older.
The sample comprised 72 Chicago boys aged 10—16 years, 58 of whom were followed up at three-yearly intervals for 20 years Kohlberg, Each boy was given a 2-hour interview based on the ten dilemmas. What Kohlberg was mainly interested in was not whether the boys judged the action right or wrong, but the reasons given for the decision.
He found that these reasons tended to change as the children got older.
He identified three distinct levels of moral reasoning each with two sub-stages. People can only pass through these levels in the order listed. Each new stage replaces the reasoning typical of the earlier stage. Not everyone achieves all the stages. Instead, our moral code is shaped by the standards of adults and the consequences of following or breaking their rules.
Authority is outside the individual and reasoning is based on the physical consequences of actions. Obedience and Punishment Orientation. If a person is punished, they must have done wrong.
At this stage, children recognize that there is not just one right view that is handed down by the authorities. Different individuals have different viewpoints.
Level 2 - Conventional morality At the conventional level most adolescents and adultswe begin to internalize the moral standards of valued adult role models. Authority is internalized but not questioned, and reasoning is based on the norms of the group to which the person belongs.
Therefore, answers relate to the approval of others. Maintaining the Social Order. Level 3 - Post-conventional morality Individual judgment is based on self-chosen principles, and moral reasoning is based on individual rights and justice.
According to Kohlberg this level of moral reasoning is as far as most people get. That is to say, most people take their moral views from those around them and only a minority think through ethical principles for themselves.
Social Contract and Individual Rights. The issues are not always clear-cut. People at this stage have developed their own set of moral guidelines which may or may not fit the law.Maslow And Kohlberg Essay Sample Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development are based on Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in his Theory of Human Motivation.
As a child grows up, her motivations change from physical (most basic) needs to communal needs and finally to spiritual (highest) needs. Structured Interview. This is also known as a formal interview (like a job interview).
The questions are asked in a set / standardized order and the interviewer will not deviate from the interview schedule or probe beyond the answers received (so they are not flexible). Theories of Development. PART II. SHORT ANSWER/ SHORT ESSAY ITEMS Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Question.
Maslow said learning is guided by an inner biological core that directs healthy growth—what Gesell called maturation. Piaget, in contrast, minimized maturation.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development - TEKS Human Growth and Development D (B) The student analyze various development theories relating to early adults, including emotional, moral, and psychosocial development. Kohlberg stages and Maslow's basic needs, but the fundamental pattern is fairly clear.
While, however, Rowan and Simpson argue that only Kohlberg's Stage Six exhibits direct parallels. Developmental and Learning Theories Gesell Freud Erikson Skinner Bandura Vygotsky Piaget Gardner Maslow Bronfenbrenner Questions Asked He regarded the development of personality as being the balance between the Id, the Ego and the SuperEgo.