Results of the campaign of Introduction A prolonged two-front war was a nightmare scenario for German military strategists in
Hanlon As the first rumble of the Great War's cannon fire reached the New World, there had already formed a decisive bloc opposing American belligerency. It included ethnic groups, such as Irish and Eastern European immigrants who had grievances against some of the Allied powers; gatherings like the Progressives, suffragettes and prohibitionists who were more interested in pursuing their causes than waging war; and Westerners and farmers who did not feel any affiliation to Europe.
These anti-interventionists were buttressed by the long American tradition of noninvolvement in the political affairs of the Old World and by President Wilson's early, insistent declaration of American neutrality.
Nevertheless, as the World War unfolded, these "doves" had to face novel and confounding events that forced them to reevaluate their positions.
Remarkably, almost every major incident that followed the war's early days had the effect of pushing, pulling and even seducing some segment of America into joining the originally minimal pro- intervention coalition.
The German Army, embodiment of "Prussian militarism," quickly acquired a "beastly" reputation by administering occupied territories ruthlessly, executing nurses and bombarding medieval Louvain library and Rheims cathedral.
Their actual misdeeds were magnified by Allied propaganda, and by Germany's inability to make their case directly to the American public. The Royal Navy had not only blockaded the Central Power's maritime commerce, but had also severed Germany's transatlantic cable.
In the US, these factors contributed to the early "demonizing" of Germany, its legions and Kaiser Wilhelm. Liberals in particular began to see their dreams of a world of justice based on peace, democracy and non-monpolistic markets threatened by the existence of the kaiser's regime.
Thousands of them felt so strongly that they enlisted in Allied armies and ambulance services. Pacifists, in their turn, evolved the paradoxical position that true peace could be found only after German militarism was eradicated. ByAllied contracts for weapons and food triggered a boom in the United States.
Then, as the Allies hard currency reserves ran out, huge loans were floated to finance their purchases. Many Americans, from factory workers to farmers to investors, came to have a not-fully-recognized, economic stake in an Allied victory.
Because of the naval blockade's success, similar economic links never developed with the Central Powers. The ultimate role of economics in American intervention is still hotly debated, but it is an issue whose importance cannot be ignored. The sinking of the British passenger liner Lusitania in the spring of resulted in the deaths of 1, persons including US citizens.
The ensuing diplomatic hullabaloo was one of the major landmarks of America's journey to the Great War's battlefields.
Some lesser-known side effects -- probably underestimated later by the German General Staff -- edged the country further towards effective intervention. Many persons, including some still opposed to intervening, came to realize they were willing to fight for their country if German actions compelled America to enter the war.
A war preparedness movement was triggered that succeeded in boosting US military capability, training a larger officer cadre and improving mobilization planning. Later problems along the Mexican border both heightened awareness of impending hostilities and showed the shortcomings of existing logistical systems.
Most importantly, all of this re-awoke the nation's dormant martial spirit and esteem for its military heritage.
As its years of bloody carnage dragged on, the war started to exercise a gravitational pull on US domestic politics.
Many activists began to see benefits from participating in the war since a nation on a war footing may undertake, out of urgency, social and political changes that it normally would not.
Anti-capitalist elements, for instance, recognized possibilities for more government controls over industry. Advocates of redistributing wealth saw in any war's undoubtedly great expenditures a necessity for imposing an increasingly progressive income tax.The Fall of the Romanovs: Political Dreams and Personal Struggles in a Time of Revolution is an excellent book about the Romanovs and their tragic end.
This is a contributed item. Please direct your feedback concerning the contents of this item to the author using the e-mail link below. By . China. Tattooing has also been featured prominently in one of the Four Classic Novels in Chinese literature, Water Margin, in which at least three of the characters, Lu Zhi Chen, Shi Jin, and Yan Chen are described as having tattoos covering nearly the whole of their bodies.
The Imperial and Royal Order of St Stanislas , today one of the Russian Imperial Orders of Chivalry, has a most complicated history amongst the Russian honours, both before the revolution and regardbouddhiste.coming its existence as the second in precedence of the Polish Royal Orders of Chivalry , it became, after its assimilation into the Russian Imperial Awards system the most.
Introduction. A prolonged two-front war was a nightmare scenario for German military strategists in Yet policies formulated by Bismarck in the s ensured that Germany did face threats on both its eastern and western frontiers.
From the Relevance Archive: From Volume One, Issue Two, Spring America's Turn From Neutrality to Intervention, by Michael E. Hanlon.