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The influence of television on children's gender role socialization. The magazine publisher is the copyright holder of this article and it is reproduced with permission. Further reproduction of this article in violation of the copyright is prohibited.
Children often internalize gender role stereotypes from books, songs, television, and the movies Thorne, Research on television viewing and children's socialization indicates that television has a great impact on children's lives.
Nielsen Media Research has found that by the time children are 16 years old, they have spent more time watching television than going to school as cited in Basow, As they develop their cognitive abilities, they assimilate new information and accommodate it to what they already know Piaget, Children's ideas about how the world works come from their experiences and from the attitudes and behaviors they see around them.
The young child who believes that only women are nurses and only men are doctors may have developed this understanding because the first doctor he or she saw was a man, who was assisted by a female nurse. This "man as doctor, woman as nurse" idea may have been reinforced further by parents, books, conversations with friends, and television.
If the child frequently meets such gender biases and gender stereotypes, this knowledge will be incorporated into future perceptions. Keeping in mind that young children with developing minds watch many hours of television, and recalling how television reinforces gender stereotypes, it is not surprising when children develop stereotyped beliefs.
Research suggests that children who view violent programming on television will behave more aggressively with peers Bandura, ; Strasburger, It is also true that children who view prosocial behaviors on television are more likely to exhibit those types of behaviors themselves. Young children will imitate and repeat behaviors they see on television.
Consequently, children may exhibit these gender-biased behaviors and develop the gender-biased attitudes that they see modeled on television. Developing autonomy, initiative, and a sense of industriousness are critical to young children's positive development Erikson, Children who witness female characters on television programs who are passive, indecisive, and subordinate to men, and who see this reinforced by their environment, will likely believe that this is the appropriate way for females to behave.
Female children are less likely to develop autonomy, initiative, and industriousness if they rarely see those traits modeled. Similarly, because male characters on television programs are more likely to be shown in leadership roles and exhibiting assertive, decisive behavior, children learn this is the appropriate way for males to behave Cantor, ; Carter, ; Seidman, About two-thirds of characters in television programs are male, a figure that has remained constant since the s Condry, ; Huston et al.
In interactions between men and women, women frequently are defined by their relationships with men Beal, Furthermore, television often does not reflect the reality of the work force. Most women on television are shown working in a profession.
Most women in real life, however, are in low-paying, low-status jobs Basow, Most females on prime time television are young, attractive, thin, and have an ornamental quality Davis, Most of these characters are either under 35 or over middle-age women are rare Beal, Females consistently are placed in situations where looks count more than brains, and helpless and incompetent behaviors are expected of them Boyer, Men are twice as likely as women to be shown as competent and able to solve problems Boyer, Gender stereotypes abound on television, with women being depicted as sex objects more frequently than men, and men portrayed as inept when handling children's needs Horovitz, as cited in Basow, ; Seidman, On music television, a popular program choice among young viewers, females often are shown in degrading positions.
Rap music videos, for example, frequently portray women as objects of lust Basow, ; Seidman, Even so, women are most often shown in the role of wife and mother, or demonstrating products for the home Osborn, as cited in Basow, Another aspect of television advertising that is overwhelmingly a masculine province is voiceovers and narration, in which percent of the voices are male Basow, Even Miss Piggy, a female character, is voiced by a male.
A study of Saturday morning cartoons revealed that females were pictured less often than males, were less active than males, played fewer roles than males, played fewer lead roles than males, and worked primarily in the home Streicher, Nowadays, children as young as two play with electronic devices.
These devices include video games, television, mobile and apart phone apps, computers, tables, and PSP games. Children tend to be active consumers and many electronic products are targeted to the youth market. In summary, television viewing affects children’s physical and mental health, school performance and behavior in negative ways.
Therefore, children should replace TV time with creative and physical activities, reading and playing games with positive values and educational content. Television and Children. both in terms of how many hours a week he watches TV and of what he sees.
When a parent is concerned about the effects of television, he should consider a number of things: what TV offers the child in terms of information and knowledge, how many hours a week a youngster his age should watch television, the impact of.
words short essay on the Impact of Television on Children. Television is one of the most popular means of media. It is a miracle of science. It is an important means of education and entertainment. It has tremendous potentiality as a powerful means of mass communication.
Television is one of the. Elias writes about the different effects alcohol television advertising has on young children.
She writes that the alcohol advertising is changing today"s children. Overall, Elias has written an interesting and informative essay on the effects alcohol and beer advertising will have on younger c. have found that television exposure to young children could effects their language and cognitive development, lead to behavior problems, attention disorder, aggression and obesity.
This paper will discuss the issues of television exposure.